礼物

礼物 : 旧社会中交换的形式与功能这一本书是ㄚ琪在阅读工作与组织行为到第2章 了解工作→2.2 工作中的关系→二、关系的本质→(四)交换时彭博士引用的一本书,英文维基这样说明↓↓↓↓↓↓↓

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The Gift is a short book by the French sociologist Marcel Mauss and is the foundation of social theories of reciprocity and gift exchange.
Mauss’s original piece was entitled Essai sur le don. Forme et raison de l’echange dans les societes archaiques (“An essay on the gift: the form and reason of exchange in archaic societies”) and was originally published in L’Annee Sociologique in 1925. The essay was later republished in French in 1950 and translated into English in 1954, first, by Ian Cunnison and, in 1990 by W. D. Halls.

彭教授在说明关系的本质时,列出了高低、差序、伦常、交换、权利等五种关系,而ㄚ琪觉得工作中的关系应该很多来自于交换吧,我们提供劳力或是才能来获取某种利益。

所以ㄚ琪引用这一段给各位想想↓↓↓↓↓↓↓

俗话说:“吃人的嘴软,拿人的手短”,别人请你吃饭,送份礼物给你,都希望得回些什么。小的礼物为了维持普通的关系,大的礼物则为了增进重要的关系,例如在许多社会,婚姻成了建立和巩固关系的手段。法国人类学李维史陀(Levi-Strauss)认为:“亲戚和婚姻是联盟系统,在此种系统中,最珍贵的礼物是妻子,所以妻子是最有效的交换礼物,以保证联盟及社会整合。”人类学家毛斯(Marcel Mauss)在其著作《礼物》(The Gifts)中分析:“赠礼的本质连带着义务和利益。所决定的权力和优势紧紧相连,受赠者需负起相当的义务来作为回报,互惠是社会已强化的规范。”

另外法国人类学李维史陀(Levi-Strauss),维基这样写↓↓↓↓↓↓↓

克劳德·李维史陀(Claude Levi-Strauss,法语读音: [klod levi stʁos]; 1908年11月28日-2009年11月1日)是著名的法国人类学家,他所建构的结构主义与神话学不但深深影响人类学,对社会学、哲学、语言学等学科也有深远的作用。

人类学家毛斯(Marcel Mauss)英文的维基这样写↓↓↓↓↓↓↓

Marcel Mauss (10 May 1872 – 10 February 1950; pronounced /mo:s/) was a French sociologist. The nephew of Emile Durkheim, Mauss’ academic work traversed the boundaries between sociology and anthropology. Today, he is perhaps better recognised for his influence on the latter discipline; particularly with respect to his analyses of topics such as magic, sacrifice and gift exchange in different cultures around the world. Mauss had a significant influence upon the founder of structural anthropology, Claude Levi-Strauss. His most famous book is The Gift (1923).

彭教授用俗话及人类学家的话来说明交换的关系,感觉很易懂,可是又很有学术的基础,难怪这本书是教科书,有可能大家读了想睡觉,哈哈。